The pharmacological effect of cannabinoids has not been fully explained. Research to decode the complex mode of action of cannabis is ongoing. It was only in 1988 that endogenous cannabinoid receptors (CB1) were discovered in the brain and a little later in the peripheral parts of the body (CB2). The human body thus has its own cannabinoid system, which is very well-adjusted to the natural cannabinoid. A large part of the cannabis effects are attributed to the receptors that have been discovered.
Cannabis flowers possess more than 80 different cannabinoids with the most varied spectrum of activity and can easily be used for therapeutic purposes, whether in the form of drops, teas or capsules, but vaporisation and inhalation are also recommended.
A multitude of possible therapeutic applications have meanwhile been studied. Particularly well-documented are muscle relaxing, calming, mood lifting, appetite stimulating, nausea inhibiting, analgesic, bronchodilatation and intraocular pressure reducing effects.
The female flowers of Cannabis sativa L. have a strong, spicy-pungent smell. The impression of being sticky when touched is due to the many drops of resin in which the active ingredient is concentrated. The pharmacologically significant ingredient in cannabis resin is the so-called cannabinoid. The most important substances for the psychotropic effect are tetrahydrocannabinol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD) is the most important non-psychoactive component of cannabinoid.
Depending upon the respective form and variety, the flowers contain variable amounts of cannabinoids, predominantly in the form of their biogenic precursors, the cannabinoid carboxylic acids. These ingredients are converted into the pharmacologically active substances delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).
More than 500 ingredients of the cannabis plant have so far been identified, of which the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) are hitherto the best researched. Documented in established clinical studies to date is the effect of THC-rich cannabis flowers on illness-related weight loss and appetite loss, as well as for HIV and cancer patients, and the positive impact on nausea and vomiting as a side effect of chemotherapy.
Considered to be relatively certain are the positive effects of cannabis flowers in the case of chronic pain, spastic paralysis, asthma and glaucoma. Favourable effects are under discussion for specific forms of epilepsy, depression and various withdrawal symptoms (benzodiazepine, opiates, alcohol).